A.USE OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS : BIO-DIESEL
Biodiesel is a renewable and clean burning fuel that is made from waste vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled restaurant grease for use in diesel vehicles. Biodiesel produces less toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases than petroleum diesel. It can be used in pure form or can be blended with petro-diesel in the form of B2 (2% biodiesel, 98% petroleum diesel), B5 (5% biodiesel, 95% petroleum diesel), B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) and B100 (pure biodiesel). Biodiesel has helped several countries in reducing their dependence on foreign oil reserves as it is domestically produced and can be used in any diesel engine with little or no modification to the engine or the fuel system.
Advantages of Bio-Diesel
ØBiodiesel fuel is renewable energy source unlike petroleum-based diesel.
ØOne of the main advantages is that it is less polluting than petroleum diesel. Fossil fuel when burnt release greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that raises the temperature and causes global warming. To protect the environment from further heating up, many people have adopted the use of bio fuels. Experts estimates that using biodiesel instead of petroleum diesel can reduce greenhouse gases up to 78%.
ØBiodiesel can also be used in existing oil heating systems and diesel engines without making any alternations.
ØBio-fuel refineries, which mainly uses vegetable and animal fat into biofuel releases less toxic chemicals, if spilled or released to the environment.
ØBiodegradable and Non-Toxic: When Bio-fuels are burnt, they produce significantly less carbon output and few pollutants. As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel produces less soot (particulate matter), carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and sulphur dioxide. Flashpoint for biodiesel is higher than 1500ºC whereas the same is about 52ºC for petroleum diesel, which makes it less combustible. It is therefore safe to handle, store and transport.
Central Railway has initiated procurement process for Bio-Diesel for Daund, Wadi & PA Shed RCDs during year 2015-16.
The existing design of toilets in coaches is in such a way that human excreta falls directly to railway tracks while the trains are on run or halting at stations. To avoid this unhygienic system, it was decided by Indian Railways to provide Bio-Toilets on all passenger coaches by 2021-22.
Bio Toilet tank fitted under the coach
Bio Toilets has the following advantages:-
ØDisposes human waste in a 100% eco friendly manner. Generates only colourless, odourless water and gases.
ØLess maintenance, continuous biological process.
Ø99% elimination of pathogens (bacteria).
ØNo dependence on the limited and costly conventional energy sources.
ØInoculums charging is required only once during the life of Bio Toilet.
ØNo need of connectivity to the sewage line, septic tank for disposal of waste
ØRoutine cleaning agents do not harm Bio Toilet of the inoculums.
This work will be carried out in phased manner, by providing Bio-Toilets in newly built coaches ex Production Units and by retro fitment on the existing coaches in the workshops as well as in the divisions. Central Railway at present has a total holding of 4300 coaches out of which 666 coaches are now fitted with 2101 Nos. of Bio-Toilets. This year, Central Railway has set a target of 151 coaches for fitment of Bio-Toilets.
i.Solar photo-voltaic grid connected power generating system over Central Railway
Three 10 KWp capacity each solar photo-voltaic grid connected power generating system has been successfully commissioned at Parcel Office Building of CSTM station, Solapur Divisional Hospital & DRM’s Office Nagpur.
Solar photo-voltaic grid connect power generating system-Parcel Office Building of CSTM of CSTM
ii.Integrated Renewable Energy based power supply system
7 Nos. Integrated Renewable Energy based power supply system (5.1Kw Windmill+1 KWp solar panel), one each at Umbermali, Thansit , Asangaon . Khandala. Matheran, Pen & Khopoli Station of Mumbai Division have been installed & made operational.
iii.Other Green Energy Works:
ØFirst Green Station on Central Railway was inaugurated on 24.01.13 at Tikekarwadi station of Solapur Division. Entire station lighting, pumping activity is powered by Solar system.
ØIn Solapur Division, at “Sangola” station 4 KWp & in Pune Division, at Daundaj station, 2 KWp solar power generating system have been provided, where entire station load has been taken on the solar system except S&T load. Thus, Sangola & Daundaj station have been converted into “Green stations”.
ØIn Mumbai Division, 2 KWp based solar power generating system has been installed and made operational at Kaman station.
ØTourist Favourite Neral-Matheran Meter Gauge First Class Coach No. 879 has been provided with 3x 7 W LED solar light system with the help of roof mounted solar panels on coach along with Lithium battery.
Solar panel on roof of coach
LED lights inside the coach
ØSolar energy initiatives:
·50 Nos. stand alone solar street lights (LED based) have been provided at Nasik.
·09 Nos. 500 LPD Solar Water Heating System have been commissioned at ZRTI & Rly Hospital, Bhusaval and ORH Nasik.
iv.Other Green Energy Projects under progress:
ØInstallation of 100 KWp Solar panel on roof top of Annexe Building/ CSTM : Purchase order for supply and installation of 100 KWp solar panel in CSTM has been placed by Railway Board on M/s. Central Electronics Ltd. Sahibabad (UP).
ØMNRE has approved work for provision of harnessing solar energy of 50 MWp on roof top of Zonal Railways. Out of 50 MWp, 4 MWp solar panel have been allocated to Central Railway.
D.Improvement in Energy Efficiency: Non-Traction Energy
i.Building Management System for Dadar station under UNDP:
In Mumbai Division at Dadar station Web based Building Management system (Electrical General power supply automation) has been commissioned by providing LT/HT Intelligent Energy Management Unit & energy efficient LED light fittings. This is a web based system where energy parameters are monitored by GPRS through multifunctional meters. Facilities of storing of data and giving alerts are there through server.
In Solapur division, Power Control Management System has been provided at Wakav Station to use Solar energy for Signalling system and to reduce dependence on supply from State Electricity Board.
ii.Illumination of Heritage Building, CST, Mumbai by LED lighting:
1200 nos. RBG LED luminaries having DMX colour mixing logical control system have been provided to illuminate CST Heritage Building – Power consumption has reduced from 70 kW to 17.4 kW, resulting into saving of 52.6 kW. Different color mixing is possible in this scheme.
Heritage Building, CST, Mumbai
iii.Energy Audit of major load centres
Total number Energy audit of installations done so far
Main recommendations and Status of implementation of audit report done in past.
(in Energy Units)
1.09 Cr. per annum
9,08,600 per annum
ØAt 9 locations of Central Railway i.e. Railway Hospital / Byculla, Parel Workshop, Nasik Road station, Bhusawal station, Patoda Pump House / Manmad, Engg Workshop / Manmad,DRM Building/BSL, Railway Hospital/BSL and MOH/BSL energy audit has been completed and recommendations made by Auditors have been implemented. At 6 locations of Solapur Division i.e. DRM Office Building, Solapur station, Railway Hospital, Daund Railway station, Sonewadi Pump House / Daund and Kurduwadi workshop energy audit has been completed and recommendations made by Auditors are being planned for implementation.
ØAgainst the target planned for energy audit to be conducted at 30 major locations during 2015-16, internal Energy Audit of 6 locations has been carried out.
ØUnder Domestic Efficient Lighting Programme launched on 25.08.15 in Central Railway, 40,000 LEDs have been distributed among Railway Staff in Central Railway so far.
ØProposal for 5 star rating for Heritage Building, CSTM is under process.
ØImprovement in energy efficiency including saving in traction and non-traction energy:-
·Illumination at Nasik station and Offices has been completely made on LED thus making it the first LEI) illumined railway station on the division, as indicated below:-
ü1000 Nos. 18W LED Tube Lights provided in place of ordinary tube lights.
ü300 Nos. Energy Saver Fans provided in place of ordinary fans.
ü50 Nos. 150W & 10 NOS. 200W LED Flood Light Fittings provided.
ü90 Nos. of 48W LED Street Light Fittings provided.
·Gradient Caution Boards have been provided on Dn gradient to alert Loco Pilots for coasting on Dn gradient to save the energy.
·Efforts are being made to maintain power factor above 0.95 to save energy and gain incentive on this account. Incentive of Rs. 52 Lac has been gained by the division upto Aug' 15 during the current financial year.
·State Electricity Companies (MSEDCL & MPPKVVCL) are giving discount @l% of energy charges and other charges on monthly energy bills, if the bill is paid within seven days from date of preparation of bill. With close co-ordination with Finance Department for prompt payment, discount of Rs. 1.92 Crore was availed upto Aug' 15 in the current year.
·Contract demand of Power Supply is reviewed critically from time to time considering the general conditions of tariff regarding payment of Maximum Demand charges and excess Demand charges as & when the tariff is revised.
E.Improvement in Energy Efficiency – Traction Energy
ØKYN-CST section of Mumbai Division of Central Railway was switched over from 1500 V DC to 25 KV AC traction system in the month of June’2015. Based upon the actual consumption, it is estimated that this will lead to energy saving of approximately 26 million units per annum.
ØThe saving of HSD oil on account of shutting down of Diesel locomotives on Central Railway during last 3 years is as under:-
Saving of HSD oil (KL)
Saving in money value (`)
F.Throughout enhancement effort in Freight and Passenger Traffic which augments Railways carrying capacity
During the year 2014-15, total 50 Nos of fully patronized trains were augmented with 100 Nos of coaches and 8 additional GS coaches were attached to 4 Passenger trains for the use of common man. In addition, augmentation of capacity of existing 24 coaches trains to 26 coaches and has been proposed.
In addition to the above, it is also proposed to augment 15 trains to 24 coach trains from the present 17 to 22 coaches.
G.Measures taken to maintain & improve cleanliness at stations are as under:-
Mechanized cleaning, Rag picking and garbage disposal contracts have been provided at all important stations. Category-wise number of stations under Mechanized cleaning, Rag picking and Garbage disposal contracts are as under:-
Total No. of stations
Mechanized cleaning contracts awarded
Rag Picking Contract awarded
Garbage disposal contract awarded
Posters and banners appealing the public from littering in the Railway premises and the penalty to be imposed, if apprehended, have displayed prominently. The station Managers / Ticket Collectors are authorized to impose a fine.
The Swachh Bharat Mission has been launched from 2nd October-2014 in order to achieve Ghandhij's dream of having a "Clean India" by the 150thBirth Anniversary of Mahatma Ghandhiji in 2019. Accordingly, in next 5 years regular events on cleanliness is being organized. Under this mission efforts are being taken to maintain cleanliness of stations, tracks, colonies and offices. The first focus is on clean and hygienic toilets in railway premises.
The Swachh Bharat Mission campaign includes tree plantation, removal of encroachment, maintaining clean toilets, painting on road kerbs, clearing posters, repairing street lights, improving drainage, improving signages, white-washing of buildings.
On Central Railway 26 stations have been nominated for disposal of Garbage from 133 pairs of trains originally/passing/terminating over C. Rly.
H.RAIN WATER HARVESTING
Rain Water Harvesting system has already been commissioned at 51 stations/locations of Central Railway. During the current financial year i.e. 2015-16, Rain Water Harvesting system has been provided at 32 stations/locations so far. Provision of Rain Water Harvesting system is still under process for other/additional stations/locations and will be provided in phased manner.
I.WATER RECYCLING PLANTS
Central Railway is a pioneer in providing WRP system on Indian Railway Network. The first WRP was installed at Carnac Bunder (CSTM) of 200 KL/day capacity, long back and based on its success, Railway Board had directed all zonal railways to provide WRPs on their system, on the lines, as provided by Central Railway. Subsequently, a WRP of 600KL/Day capacity at NGP and a WRP of 100KL/Day capacity at AQ (NGP division) has been provided and all of these three WRPs are functioning. In addition, a work of providing WRP of 500KL/Day capacity at Solapur has been completed physically in the month of August 2015 and is now under process of commissioning. In addition to the above, the following works for provision of WRPs has already been sanctioned and the same are in different stages of progress, presently.
ETP has been installed at LTT coaching depot for Coach washing plant. The ETP ensure recycling of 80% water so that fresh water requirement becomes less than 20%. This is a great saving in water consumption as water is scarcely available. Water recycling plant is also included in sanctioned work of construction of four pit lines at Wadibunder vide PB item no. 484 of 15-16. This will cater recycling of water in all existing and future pit lines.
Conducting of water audit has been planned at all the major water consumption stations with a view to assess actual water requirement afresh as well as to reduce and water action consumption will be taken by arresting leakages etc. The work of water audit is under process based on audit report for plugging of wastage to save water.
G**ViewPOSITION**arbage collected by OBHS staff during journey is collected in bags and handed over to nominated station staff enroute. Garbage collected in maintenance siding and coaching depots are disposed in nominated BMC dumps.